The Dangers of the Dark Web
There are many stories referencing what lurks on the dark web, ranging from confidential information, drugs to assassins, but not many people know exactly what the dark web is or how to access it.
According to experts, there are eight levels of the internet, ranging from the surface version you access every day to the lowest levels where the entire web is assembled. Dark web users bypass the normal surface level of the internet in order to steal data, solicit illegal substances, and pursue other nefarious purposes. While the deep web uses complex layering (called "onion sites") to remain hidden, it is relatively simple to access. If you know where and how to look, all the creepiness of the deep web can be yours to peruse at your own risk.
You Need A Special Browser To Access The Dark Web
Sites on the dark web are hidden and can't be indexed by search engines like Google, so normal browsers can't access them. In particular, dark websites include a top-level suffix indicating a hidden service reachable only with Tor (The Onion Router) or similar software.
Tor hides your information by routing browser traffic through an overlay network that has access to more than 7,000 relays. That way, your location appears to change multiple times, virtually placing you anywhere from Sweden to Nicaragua. Ironically, Tor was invented by the US Naval Research Laboratory to protect the identities of whistleblowers and individuals who oppose their countries' political regimes.
The Web is Much Larger Than You Realize
The immense size of the web is typically portrayed as an iceberg. The tip of the iceberg everyone sees is the surface web, which makes up only 10% of the information that exists on the internet as a whole. There are an estimated 980,000,000 legal websites on the surface web.
The deep web (dark web) is the submerged part of the hypothetical iceberg; it makes up 90% of all internet information. While the surface web holds approximately 19 terabytes of information, the deep web contains roughly 7,500 terabytes and is home to an unknown number of websites.
Search Engines Can't Access The Deep Web
Everything on the surface web is indexed by search engines. These engines collect information by deploying automated spiders or crawlers that follow the thread of a domain to other related or linked domains and catalog the content.
Since the deep web uses Tor, which is not rooted in a fixed domain, search engines are unable to make sense of deep websites or follow their threads. To further mask their existence, hidden sites like these may also require passkeys or passwords. Normal search engines limit internet users to surface web content.
The Dark Web Is Larger Than The Surface Web But Less Saturated
The surface web consists of sites like YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook - sites that most people encounter every day. The dark web, however, contains sites that are purposely hidden, sites that occupy the last page of search engine results, and sites that are no longer indexed.
The Dark Web Has Evolved Multiple Times
The term "darknet" was first used in the 1970s to describe networks outside of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). ARPANET was the foundation of what would later become the internet. In 2000, Freenet emerged as a way for users to privately browse the internet without being censored. The more sophisticated I2P peer-to-peer network was created in 2003.
The US Naval Research Lab developed Tor in 2002 to help protected individuals remain anonymous, but the product was publicly launched as a nonprofit in 2006.
The Deep Web Is Legal, But The Services Are Not
It is not illegal to use Tor browsers to remain anonymous online or to access the deep web. However, law enforcement agencies pay close attention to deep web users since Tor is often used by criminals engaging in illegal activity. Deep web users have been known to purchase stolen information, buy drugs, or take part in other illicit happenings offered on the dark web.
Data Sold On The Dark Web Is Relatively Inexpensive
The dark web is an open marketplace where users can buy and sell others' personal information. In fact, it's surprisingly inexpensive to access that data. According to Visual Capitalist, medical records sell for $50, Social Security numbers for $1,000, and credit card information for about $60.
The Deep Web Really Does Deserve Its Dark Reputation
Black market sites make up the third largest portion of the dark web, beaten only by drug rings and counterfeiting rings. Suggestive adult content and abusive subject matter also run rampant on the dark web; these sites are incredibly problematic. Hackers also tend to use the dark web to facilitate the trade of illegal malware.
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